使用littlefs-fuse在PC端调试littlefs文件系统

背景

littlefs是arm面向嵌入式设备推出的一款掉电安全的小型文件系统,具有抗掉电,动态磨损均衡,RAM/ROM需求少等特点,具体介绍可见 https://github.com/ARMmbed/littlefs

作为一款在嵌入式设备上使用的文件系统,出问题时,一般是需要将数据dump出来进行分析的。此时就需要PC端的调试工具了。

littlefs-fuse简介

这个项目提供了一个littlefs的FUSE封装,也就是你可以借助此项目,在PC上直接将littlefs镜像挂载起来,并正常进行一些文件系统的操作。

源码位于:https://github.com/ARMmbed/littlefs-fuse

结构

我们直接下载下来

 $ git clone https://github.com/ARMmbed/littlefs-fuse.git
 $ cd littlefs-fuse

先看下结构

$ tree -L 2

.
├── lfs_fuse_bd.c
├── lfs_fuse_bd.h
├── lfs_fuse.c
├── LICENSE.md
├── littlefs
│   ├── DESIGN.md
│   ├── emubd
│   ├── lfs.c
│   ├── lfs.h
│   ├── lfs_util.c
│   ├── lfs_util.h
│   ├── LICENSE.md
│   ├── Makefile
│   ├── README.md
│   ├── scripts
│   ├── SPEC.md
│   └── tests
├── Makefile
└── README.md

外层是封装,里面则直接包含了littlefs文件夹。当我们需要特定版本的littlefs,例如使用跟设备上同一版本的littlefs时,只需要替换掉里层的这个littlefs即可,非常方便。

编译

根据README,项目依赖 FUSE version 2.6及以上的版本,可以使用如下命令查看版本

fusermount -V

另外还需要安装下 libfuse-dev:

sudo apt-get install libfuse-dev

依赖项满足之后,直接make即可生成lfs应用程序

make

生成设备并挂载使用

首先需要造一个块设备出来

sudo chmod a+rw /dev/loop0                  # make loop device user accessible
dd if=/dev/zero of=image bs=512 count=2048  # create a 1MB image
losetup /dev/loop0 image                    # attach the loop device

我们上一步是dd生成了一个空的image,所以需要先格式化,

./lfs --format /dev/loop0

再挂载

mkdir -p mount
./lfs /dev/loop0 mount

挂载成功后,执行mount可以看到挂载情况

$ mount | grep lfs
/home/zhuangqiubin/debug_littlefs/littlefs-fuse/lfs on /home/zhuangqiubin/debug_littlefs/littlefs-fuse/mount type fuse.lfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,user_id=1000,group_id=1000)

现在就可以在mount目录下,随意进行操作了,创建删除读出写入,都会被转换成littlefs的操作,最终作用到image上

过程中,可以随时dump出数据,就可以看到你的操作,最终存储到littlefs上时什么样的数据格式了,例如

$ echo "www.cnblogs.com/zqb-all/" >> mount/test_littlefs.txt

$ hexdump -C image
00000000  03 00 00 00 f0 0f ff f7  6c 69 74 74 6c 65 66 73  |........littlefs|
00000010  2f e0 00 10 00 00 02 00  00 02 00 00 00 08 00 00  |/...............|
00000020  ff 00 00 00 ff ff ff 7f  fe 03 00 00 20 00 04 09  |............ ...|
00000030  74 65 73 74 5f 6c 69 74  74 6c 65 66 73 2e 74 78  |test_littlefs.tx|
00000040  74 20 00 00 11 70 0f f9  b7 ee c0 48 bb ff ff ff  |t ...p.....H....|
00000050  ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff  ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff  |................|
*
00000200  04 00 00 00 f0 0f ff f7  6c 69 74 74 6c 65 66 73  |........littlefs|
00000210  2f e0 00 10 00 00 02 00  00 02 00 00 00 08 00 00  |/...............|
00000220  ff 00 00 00 ff ff ff 7f  fe 03 00 00 20 00 04 09  |............ ...|
00000230  74 65 73 74 5f 6c 69 74  74 6c 65 66 73 2e 74 78  |test_littlefs.tx|
00000240  74 20 00 00 08 77 77 77  2e 63 6e 62 6c 6f 67 73  |t ...www.cnblogs|
00000250  2e 63 6f 6d 2f 7a 71 62  2d 61 6c 6c 2f 0a 70 0f  |.com/zqb-all/.p.|
00000260  f9 87 46 fe c1 ad ff ff  ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff  |..F.............|
00000270  ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff  ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff  |................|
*
00000400  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
*
00100000

使用完毕之后,用以下命令卸载

umount mount
sudo losetup -d /dev/loop0

挂载一个指定镜像

以上是生成了空的镜像,格式化再挂载。如果要挂载一个现成的镜像,步骤也是差不多的,只是镜像换一下。假设现成的镜像叫littlefs.img,则

sudo chmod a+rw /dev/loop0                  # make loop device user accessible
losetup /dev/loop0 littlefs.img                    # attach the loop device
mkdir -p mount
./lfs /dev/loop0 mount

卸载命令没有差别

umount mount
sudo losetup -d /dev/loop0

但从设备上dump出的littlefs镜像,其配置不一定会跟littlefs-fuse的默认配置匹配。

此时为了能正确挂载,以及准确地模拟littlefs在设备上运行的情况,我们需要将配置改成一样的。

解决方式一,直接修改源码,例如

diff --git a/lfs_fuse.c b/lfs_fuse.c
index 3c87dad..d1a99a2 100644
--- a/lfs_fuse.c
+++ b/lfs_fuse.c
@@ -26,7 +26,16 @@
 
 
 // config and other state
-static struct lfs_config config = {0};
+/* static struct lfs_config config = {0}; */
+static struct lfs_config config = {
+    .read_size = 256,
+    .prog_size = 256,
+    .block_size = 4096,
+    .block_count = 1224,
+    .block_cycles = 512,
+    .cache_size = 256,
+    .lookahead_size = 32
+};

修改后重新make生成即可

解决方式二,在调用的时候,通过命令行参数指定,例如

./lfs --block_size=512 --format /dev/loop0
./lfs --block_size=512 /dev/loop0 mount

支持的选项,可以在help中找到

$lfs -h
usage: ./lfs [options] device mountpoint

general options:
    -o opt,[opt...]        FUSE options
    -h   --help            print help
    -V   --version         print version

littlefs options:
    --format               format instead of mounting
    --migrate              migrate previous version  instead of mounting
    -b   --block_size      logical block size, overrides the block device
    --block_count          block count, overrides the block device
    --block_cycles         number of erase cycles before eviction (512)
    --read_size            readable unit (block_size)
    --prog_size            programmable unit (block_size)
    --cache_size           size of caches (block_size)
    --lookahead_size       size of lookahead buffer (8192)
    --name_max             max size of file names (255)
    --file_max             max size of file contents (2147483647)
    --attr_max             max size of custom attributes (1022)

FUSE options:
    -d   -o debug          enable debug output (implies -f)
    -f                     foreground operation
    -s                     disable multi-threaded operation

    -o allow_other         allow access to other users
    -o allow_root          allow access to root
    -o auto_unmount        auto unmount on process termination
    -o nonempty            allow mounts over non-empty file/dir
    -o default_permissions enable permission checking by kernel
    -o fsname=NAME         set filesystem name
    -o subtype=NAME        set filesystem type
    -o large_read          issue large read requests (2.4 only)
    -o max_read=N          set maximum size of read requests

    -o hard_remove         immediate removal (don't hide files)
    -o use_ino             let filesystem set inode numbers
    -o readdir_ino         try to fill in d_ino in readdir
    -o direct_io           use direct I/O
    -o kernel_cache        cache files in kernel
    -o [no]auto_cache      enable caching based on modification times (off)
    -o umask=M             set file permissions (octal)
    -o uid=N               set file owner
    -o gid=N               set file group
    -o entry_timeout=T     cache timeout for names (1.0s)
    -o negative_timeout=T  cache timeout for deleted names (0.0s)
    -o attr_timeout=T      cache timeout for attributes (1.0s)
    -o ac_attr_timeout=T   auto cache timeout for attributes (attr_timeout)
    -o noforget            never forget cached inodes
    -o remember=T          remember cached inodes for T seconds (0s)
    -o nopath              don't supply path if not necessary
    -o intr                allow requests to be interrupted
    -o intr_signal=NUM     signal to send on interrupt (10)
    -o modules=M1[:M2...]  names of modules to push onto filesystem stack

    -o max_write=N         set maximum size of write requests
    -o max_readahead=N     set maximum readahead
    -o max_background=N    set number of maximum background requests
    -o congestion_threshold=N  set kernel's congestion threshold
    -o async_read          perform reads asynchronously (default)
    -o sync_read           perform reads synchronously
    -o atomic_o_trunc      enable atomic open+truncate support
    -o big_writes          enable larger than 4kB writes
    -o no_remote_lock      disable remote file locking
    -o no_remote_flock     disable remote file locking (BSD)
    -o no_remote_posix_lock disable remove file locking (POSIX)
    -o [no_]splice_write   use splice to write to the fuse device
    -o [no_]splice_move    move data while splicing to the fuse device
    -o [no_]splice_read    use splice to read from the fuse device

Module options:

[iconv]
    -o from_code=CHARSET   original encoding of file names (default: UTF-8)
    -o to_code=CHARSET      new encoding of the file names (default: UTF-8)

[subdir]
    -o subdir=DIR       prepend this directory to all paths (mandatory)
    -o [no]rellinks     transform absolute symlinks to relative

调试

既然可以在PC上模拟挂载和读写,那首先最直观的,就是可以在littlefs的源码中按需添加调试代码,再重新挂载dump出来的镜像,通过打印来分析问题。

其次,必要的时候,我们还可以上gdb

make DEBUG=1 clean all                # build with debug info
gdb --args ./lfs -d /dev/loop0 mount  # run with gdb

本文地址:https://www.cnblogs.com/zqb-all/p/12078659.html